Senator James Tunnel, Mary Norton and Massachusetts Congressman John McCormack
having breakfast at the 1944 Democratic National Convention in Chicago.
Courtesy, Special Collections and University Archives, Rutgers University Libraries
Mary Norton and
the Women of the 80th Congress, 1947-1949
Congresswoman Mary T. Norton was Jersey City's most prominent political figure during the era of Frank Hague, with the possible exception of the mayor himself. Service and loyalty to her party, her mentor and her constituents marked Norton's long political career. It ran parallel to Hague's control of Jersey City and President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's national leadership through the Depression and World War II. Known as a "New Dealer," Norton gained prominence as a legislator who championed the cause of the working poor, especially in her Hudson County congressional district.
Norton was born in Jersey City in 1875, the eldest daughter of Irish immigrants Thomas Hopkins, a construction worker, and Maria (Shea) Hopkins, a homemaker. She attended a local parochial school, but did not complete her elementary education in consideration of her family's financial situation, a fact not revealed during her lifetime. She pursued an informal education at home with the assistance of her brother James. The family resources instead were reserved for James to be educated for the priesthood--not an uncommon sacrifice for daughters in Roman Catholic families of the times. James Hopkins did not become a priest after all, but be became the principal of Dickinson High School (then the High School of Jersey City) and later Superintendent of Schools in Jersey City.
Norton's mother died when she was seventeen. When her father remarried, Norton and her two sisters, Anne and Loretta, moved to an apartment in New York City, attended Packard Business College for secretarial training, and worked in clerical positions to support themselves.
In 1909, Norton married
Robert Francis Norton, a widower with two children (raised by his mother)
who managed a cooperage firm in Jersey City. Their only son, Robert, died
in infancy the following year. To adjust to the fact that she could have
no more children, she turned to public service and volunteer work. She
helped launch in 1912 the "Queen's Daughter's Day Nursery,"
a nonsectarian day-care center that operated out of St. Joseph's R.C.
Church basement. From her years in the work force, she knew of the concerns
of working women for their children and worked on their behalf for the
nursery for fifteen years, three as secretary and twelve as president.
During the World War I years, she also organized a Red Cross workroom
for women in the parish hall basement.
In 1920, the suffrage amendment was passed and Hague was determined to recruit women to the Democratic Party. Hague had met Norton years earlier when she made a request for funds for the day care center--and he was impressed. If she could translate that drive from her social work to the political organization of women in the Democratic Party, his future in Jersey City, Hudson County, and even the state, would be assured. Norton was overwhelmed by the offer but humbly recommended that a woman identified with the suffrage movement might better serve in the role. Norton eventually accepted the challenge and organized women to participate actively in the Democratic Party.
Progressing in her political career, with Hague's support, Norton became the first woman member of the Democratic State Committee; in 1923, she was elected the first Democratic woman freeholder in New Jersey on the Hudson County Board of Freeholders. She successfully obtained Board approval of the construction of a maternity hospital in Jersey City at County expense, a special project of "Boss" Hague. Her interest in the hospital was that the infant mortality rate in Hudson County in 1923 was 212 per 1000 births (Norton Ms). Hague had counseled her about a gradualist approach to win over the members of the Board. Using this strategy and Hague's behind-the-scenes support, Norton saw her proposal adopted. With their approval, the Margaret Hague Maternity Hospital, named after the Mayor's mother, was begun. Hague then asked Norton to become the first woman member of the Democratic State Committee, on which she served until 1944.
In 1924, with Hague's encouragement, Norton became a candidate for the House of Representative from the New Jersey's Twelfth Congressional District (Bayonne and Jersey City). The elections that year were slated to be a Republican sweep nationally, but Norton believed that the women she had met throughout the community would come out to support hers. She won the election by a plurality of 17,000 votes over her opponent, an astonishing victory for the time, even in a Democratic stronghold. She was the first woman Democratic elected to Congress from an eastern state and represented her district from 1925 to 1951 or thirteen successive terms. When she was elected in 1924, she lived at 90 Reservoir Avenue in Jersey City.
During her tenure she served her constituents well, becoming the chair of three Congressional Committees, Veterans Affairs, the District of Columbia, and Labor. On these committees, she obtained funds for the construction of the first veterans' hospital in New Jersey and championed home rule for the District of Columbia and the Fair Labor Standards Act, which established minimum wage rates for workers of firms engaged in interstate commerce. In 1932, Norton led the Democrats in Congress for the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment instituting Prohibition and called the "Noble Experiment" a mistake.
As the Depression progressed, Norton sought New Deal funds to alleviate the unemployment crises in her district that was important to Hague. On March 23, 1936, he wrote to Norton to about additional funding for the enlargement of the Margaret Hague Maternity Hospital: "I want you to take this matter to Harry Hopkins [Director of the Works Progress Administration] yourself and stay with it until you put it over." He adds:"I know of your interest in this hospital; you are the one who introduced the resolution in the Board of Freeholders that created it. It would be a nice thing if you were to finish the job by obtaining approval of this project. The other is for a Nurses' Home, to house the nurses for the Maternity Hospital and the Hudson County Tuberculosis Hospital [Pollak], which is now nearing completion" (Norton Ms.).
Hague's requests to Norton for more moneys for the Medical Center from the Congress went on until after 1939 but brought no results due to concerns about the impending war in Europe. Norton's pursuit of a loan contract for low-rent housing in Jersey City in 1939, however, met with Roosevelt's approval and an award of a loan of $3,090,000 from the Federal Works Agency.
As Hague predicted, Norton was a good role model for women in politics. She advocated the full participation by women as voters, party members, and candidates for office, and at all levels of government. For Norton, women's political activism was not an issue of women's rights but of women's rightful place in American democracy. True to her Roman Catholic background and constituency, however, she voted against the Gillett Bill that proposed federal funding for the dissemination of birth control information.
During World War II,
she sought federal funds for day-care centers for working women with the
passage of the Lanham Act. She never forgot her volunteer work in Jersey
City and the problems of working women with children. She identified the
issues of maternity leave, child care, "latch key" children,
displaced homemakers, and equal pay for equal work among her legislative
concerns. Consistent with this position, Norton opposed the proposal by
feminist Alice Paul for an Equal Rights Amendment to the US Constitution
on grounds that it would means the loss of protective work laws for women.
It has long been debated whether Norton worked in Congress independently of Hague or was there only to do his bidding. Throughout her career, Norton denied interference from Hague and the supposition that she was in daily contact with him. She claimed that as a new member of Congress she once asked Hague how to vote on an issue. He responded, "You're on the spot. If I didn't think you had brains, I wouldn't have sent you." (Norton Ms.) To the end of her career, Norton was loyal to Hague, whom she called her "political foster father," and to the Democratic Party. In many instances, Norton's legislative agenda for her constituents transcended those of Hague and her legislative successes benefited Hague's constituents as well.
In 1951, at the age seventy-five, Norton retired from the House of Representatives; it closely marked the end of the Hague regime in Hudson County. Norton had sold her residence at 90 Reservoir Avenue in 1926. Upon her retirement, she moved from her home at 2400 Hudson (now Kennedy Boulevard) to Greenwich, Connecticut, where she died at age eighty-four on August 2, 1959.
In 1996, Hudson County Community College dedicated one of its conference rooms to Norton. To celebrate Women's History Month in March 2001, an official portrait of Norton was hung in the office of House of Representative Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi. The Mary Norton Manor, a 45-unit workforce housing project at 23-25 Duncan Avenue, is named for the long-time congresswoman from Jersey City.
|By: Carmela Karnoutsos
Project Administrator: Patrick Shalhoub