APA Citation Guide

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APA Citation Guide


Please note: This guide provides only the most common kind of references. For all reference examples, please consult the latest edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association located at the Reference Desk. Choose one example that is most like your source and follow the format.

Suggestion: When in doubt, provide more information rather than less. Also, punctuation is an important component of the style. Pay close attention to the punctuation in each example. 
PDF copy of ALA 7th ed. citation examples. 

PDF copy of  APA 6th ed. citation examples.

APA Style (7th Edition) Citation Guide


Author's last name, Initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of book: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher.
     https :// doi.org/ xxxxx /yyyyyyy if given for an eBook [no period used after DOI]

Example 1 (print book):
Tolan, J. V. (2013). Europe and the Islamic world: A history. Princeton University Press.
(Tolan, 2013)

Example 2: (eBook retrieved from a library academic database, without a DOI, do not include URL or database information.)
Aschengrau, A., & Seage, G. R. (2020). Essentials of epidemiology in public health.
     Jones & Bartlett Learning.
(Aschengrau & Seage, 2020)

Article or Chapter/Entry in an Edited Book or Encyclopedia

Author's last name, Initial(s). (Year). Title of the work. In A. A. Editor, & B. B. Editor (Eds.),
     Title of the book (Vol. number, page number). Publisher.
​​​​​​Wilkins, M. (2001). The history of multinational enterprise. In A. M. Rugman, & T. L. Brewer (Eds.),
     The Oxford handbook of international business (pp. 3-25). Oxford University Press.     
(Wilkins, 2001)                       

If a work has no author, place the title of the work in the author position.
​​​​​​Imago. (2000). In World book encyclopedia (Vol. 10, p. 79). World Book Encyclopedia.
("Imago," 2000)

Journal Article

Author's last name, Initial(s). (Year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number(issue number),
     page numbers. https:// doi.org/xxxxx/yyyyyy [Include DOI if given even when using print source.]

Example 1: (Article has a DOI)
Meyer, U., & Feldon, J. (2009). Neural basis of psychosis-related behavior in the infection model
     of schizophrenia. Behavioural Brain Research, 204(2), 322-334.

(Meyer & Feldon, 2009)

Example 2: (Article without a DOI retrieved from library academic databases, do not include URL or database information)
Esper, P. (2009). Immune modulation in melanoma and advanced cancer therapy.
     Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 13(5), 547-554.

(Esper, 2009)

Webpage or Web Document

Individual Author or Name of Group if given. (date if given). Title of webpage or document. Website Name. URL [no period used after URL]

Example 1:
Grohol, J.M. (2020). The psychology of confirmation bias. PsychCentral.
(Grohol, 2020)

Example 2: (Document with no date)  
Note: Include retrieval date in URL only when the source material is likely to change over time.  Otherwise no retrieval date is needed.

National Alliance on Mental Illness. (n.d.). Mental health conditions. NAMI. 
     Retrieved March 27, 2020, from https://www.nami.org/learn-more/mental-health-conditions
(National Alliance on Mental Illness, n.d.)


Last updated: 11/18/2020